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Biomarkers in traumatic brain injury: a review
  1. Emma Toman1,
  2. S Harrisson2 and
  3. T Belli3,4
  1. 1Major Trauma Service, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Academic Department of Military Surgery and Trauma, Royal Centre for Defence Medicine, Birmingham, UK
  3. 3National Institute for Health Research Surgical Reconstruction and Microbiology Research Centre, Birmingham, UK
  4. 4University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  1. Correspondence to Dr Emma Toman, Major Trauma Service, Nuffield House 6th floor, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2WB, UK; emma.toman{at}


Biomarkers allow physiological processes to be monitored, in both health and injury. Multiple attempts have been made to use biomarkers in traumatic brain injury (TBI). Identification of such biomarkers could allow improved understanding of the pathological processes involved in TBI, diagnosis, prognostication and development of novel therapies. This review article aims to cover both established and emerging TBI biomarkers along with their benefits and limitations. It then discusses the potential value of TBI biomarkers to military, civilian and sporting populations and the future hopes for developing a role for biomarkers in head injury management.

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