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Daily oscillations of skin temperature in military personnel using thermography
  1. Carlos Magno Amaral Costa1,2,
  2. M Sillero-Quintana3,
  3. S Piñonosa Cano3,
  4. D G Moreira1,
  5. C J Brito1,
  6. A A Fernandes1,
  7. G A Pussieldi1 and
  8. J C B Marins1
  1. 1Federal University of Viçosa, Laboratory Human Performance, Minas Gerais, Brazil
  2. 2Aeronatutics Instruction and Adaptation Center, Minas Gerais, Brazil
  3. 3Faculty of Sport Sciences, Technical University of Madrid (UPM), Madrid, Spain
  1. Correspondence to Carlos Magno Amaral Costa, Centro de Instrução e Adaptação da Aeronáutica, Seção de Educação Física, 1° Ten Carlos Magno Amaral Costa, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais CEP 36570-000, Brasil; carlosmagnoac{at}


Introduction The human body makes many physiological adjustments throughout the day, including adjustments to body temperature. The purpose of this study was to determine oscillations in the skin temperature (Tsk-1–Tsk-25) at 25 body regions of interest (ROIs) over 1 day using infrared thermography.

Methods Tsk values of 31 male (age 22.9±3.0 years) Brazilian Air Force members were evaluated from five thermograms collected at 7, 11, 15, 19 and 23 h (Tsk7,11,15,19,23) by a Fluke imager. We applied one-way analysis of variance for repeated measures for the different times of the day and Tukey's post hoc test to determine significant Tsk differences between ROIs (α=0.05), and the cosinor analysis was used to determine the midline estimating statistic of rhythm, amplitude and acrophase of Tsk during the 24 h period.

Results The anterior hands showed the greatest Tsk variations throughout the day. In the lower limbs, scapula, abdomen, chest and lower back, Tsk-11, Tsk-15, Tsk-19 and Tsk-23 were significantly different (p<0.05) from Tsk-7. The lowest Tsk values were obtained in the early morning, with increases in the afternoon and levelling after 15:00.

Conclusions The Tsk at all ROIs and the averaged Tsk showed oscillations throughout the day, with the lowest values in the early morning (07:00). Temperature fluctuations depended on the specific ROI, with thermal stabilisation in some regions in the afternoon and a central upward trend throughout the day in the hands.

  • skin temperature
  • infrared thermography
  • military
  • thermal profile
  • circadian rhythm

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