Article Text

Download PDFPDF
Guidelines for using animal models in blast injury research
  1. Sarah Watts1,
  2. E Kirkman1,
  3. D Bieler2,
  4. S Bjarnason3,
  5. A Franke2,
  6. R Gupta4,
  7. M J Leggieri Jr4,
  8. H Orru5,
  9. S Ouellet6,
  10. M Philippens7,
  11. J-C Sarron8,
  12. S Skriudalen9,
  13. J A Teland9,
  14. M Risling10 and
  15. I Cernak11
  1. 1 CBR Division, Dstl Porton Down, Salisbury, Wiltshire, UK
  2. 2 Department of Trauma Surgery and Orthopaedics, German Armed Forces Central Hospital of Koblenz, Koblenz, Germany
  3. 3 Defence Research and Development Canada–Suffield Research Centre, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
  4. 4 US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, DoD Blast Injury Research Program Executive Agency, Maryland, USA
  5. 5 Institute of Family Medicine and Public Health University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia
  6. 6 Defence Research and Development Canada–Valcartier Research Centre, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada
  7. 7 Explosions, Ballistics and Protection, TNO Locatie Rijswijk, Rijswijk, The Netherlands
  8. 8 Sous-direction ‘Plans-Capacités’, Paris, France
  9. 9 Norwegian Defence Research Establishment (FFI), Kjeller, Norway
  10. 10 Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Solna, Sweden
  11. 11 STARR-C (Stress, Trauma and Resilience Research Consulting), Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
  1. Correspondence to Dr Sarah Watts, CBR Division, Dstl, Porton Down, Wiltshire, UK; sawatts1{at}


Blast injury is a very complex phenomenon and frequently results in multiple injuries. One method to investigate the consequences of blast injuries is with the use of living systems (animal models). The use of animals allows the examination and evaluation of injury mechanisms in a more controlled manner, allowing variables such as primary or secondary blast injury for example, to be isolated and manipulated as required. To ensure a degree of standardisation across the blast research community a set of guidelines which helps researchers navigate challenges of modelling blast injuries in animals is required. This paper describes the guidelines for Using Animal Models in Blast Injury Research developed by the NATO Health Factors and Medicine (HFM) Research Task Group 234.

  • injury research
  • guidelines for using animal
  • blast injuries
View Full Text

Statistics from


  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent Not required.

  • Provenance and peer review Commissioned; internally peer reviewed.

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.