Article Text

Download PDFPDF
One hundred years (and counting) of blast-associated traumatic brain injury
  1. Kevin Kinch1,
  2. J L Fullerton2 and
  3. W Stewart1,2
  1. 1 Department of Neuropathology, Queen Elizabeth University Hospital, Glasgow, UK
  2. 2 Institute of Neuroscience and Psychology, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK
  1. Correspondence to Dr Kevin Kinch, Department of Neuropathology, Queen Elizabeth University Hospital, Glasgow G51 4TF, UK; kevin.kinch{at}


Blast-associated traumatic brain injury (TBI) has become one of the signature issues of modern warfare and is increasingly a concern in the civilian population due to a rise in terrorist attacks. Despite being a recognised feature of combat since the introduction of high explosives in conventional warfare over a century ago, only recently has there been interest in understanding the biology and pathology of blast TBI and the potential long-term consequences. Progress made has been slow and there remain remarkably few robust human neuropathology studies in this field. This article provides a broad overview of the history of blast TBI and reviews the pathology described in the limitedscientific studies found in the literature.

  • neurological injury
  • neuropathology
  • histopathology

Statistics from


  • Contributors KK and WS contributed to the formulation of the topic. All authors contributed to revising and finalising the manuscript.

  • Funding This study was funded by the National Institutes of Health.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.