Introduction Rotational shift work has a considerable effect on immune function and cause inflammation. In addition, it may lead to unhealthy dietary intake. No earlier study has examined the association between dietary patterns and inflammation in rotational shift workers. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the association between dietary patterns and circulating proinflammatory cytokines among shift workers.
Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted among 257 male shift workers. Dietary intake of participants was examined using the semiquantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire. Serum concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were measured using suitable commercial kits.
Results Three main dietary patterns included green vegetables, yellow vegetables and cruciferous vegetables (VEG), liquid oils and mayonnaise, fast food and eggs (LFE), as well as tea and coffee, refined grains and spice (TRS). Subjects with the highest adherence to VEG dietary pattern had a significantly lower concentration of IL-6 (p<0.01) and TNF-α (p<0.001) as compared with those with the lowest adherence. On the other hand, a significant negative association was found between LFE dietary pattern and serum concentrations of IL-6 (p=0.01) and TNF-α (p=0.02). However, no significant association was found between adherence to VEG (p=0.34) or LFE (p=0.99) dietary patterns and levels of hs-CRP and between adherence to TRS dietary pattern and any of the inflammatory cytokines.
Conclusion Adherence to VEG and LFE dietary patterns was inversely and directly associated to serum IL-6 and TNF-α concentrations in shift workers, respectively. However, no significant association was found between adherence to these two dietary patterns and serum hs-CRP concentrations and between TRS dietary pattern and any of the inflammatory cytokines.
- dietary pattern
- shift worker
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Contributors FS and GS conceived and developed the idea for the paper and revised the manuscript. RK contributed to data collection and wrote numerous drafts. MG and FK contributed to data analysis and interpretation of the data. The manuscript has been read and approved by all authors.
Funding This research was supported by Tehran University of Medical Sciences and Health Services Grant No 30331-161-03-94.
Competing interests None declared.
Patient consent Not required.
Ethics approval Ethics Committee of Tehran University of Medical Sciences.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; internally peer reviewed.
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