Introduction Primary blast affects the kidneys due to direct shock wave damage and the production of proinflammatory cytokines without effective treatment. CD28 has been reported to be involved in regulating T cell activation and secretion of inflammatory cytokines. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of primary blast on the kidney and the effect of CD28 in mice.
Methods A mouse model of primary blast-induced kidney injury was established using a custom-made explosive device. The severity of kidney injury was investigated by H&E staining. ELISA was applied to study serum inflammation factors’ expression. Western blot assays were used to analyse the primary blast-induced inflammatory factors’ expression in the kidney. Immunofluorescence analysis was used to examine the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway.
Results Histological examination demonstrated that compared with the primary blast group, CD28 deficiency caused a significant decrease in the severity of the primary blast-induced renal injury. Moreover, ELISA and western blotting revealed that CD28 deficiency significantly reduced the levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-4 and IL-6, and increased the IL-10 level (p<0.05). Finally, immunofluorescence analysis indicated that PI3K/Akt expression also changed.
Conclusions CD28 deficiency had protective effects on primary blast-induced kidney injury via the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway. These findings improve the knowledge on primary blast injury and provide theoretical basis for primary blast injury treatment.
- primary blast
- kidney injury
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XHJ and QW contributed equally.
Contributors The manuscript has been read and approved for publication by all the authors.
Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Competing interests None declared.
Patient consent for publication Not required.
Ethics approval Animal welfare and experimental design were approved by the Ethics Committee of the General Hospital of Shenyang Military.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; internally peer reviewed.
Data availability statement There are no data in this work.