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Evolution of hot zone care: MARA


Modern conflict and terrorist events have moved from linear two-dimensional battlespaces into complex, continuously evolving three-dimensional environments. Contested spaces make traditional definitions of zones of response confusing and lead to delays in care. The presence of actual or perceived ongoing threats creates an environment in which the initiation of tactical field care (TFC) may be inappropriate, despite the absence of an immediate risk to life. This risks a ‘time and space gap’ between care under fire and TFC. Major haemorrhage, airway, respiration, analgesia is proposed as a rethought approach to care in such environments.

  • trauma management
  • accident & emergency medicine
  • protocols & guidelines

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