Introduction Haemorrhage is the leading cause of potentially survivable death on the battlefield. Despite overall improvement in battlefield mortality, there has been no improvement in survival following non-compressible torso haemorrhage (NCTH). The abdominal aortic junctional tourniquet-stabilised (AAJT-S) is a potential solution that may address this gap in improving combat mortality. This systematic review examines the evidence base for the safety and utility of the AAJT-S for prehospital haemorrhage control in the combat setting.
Methods A systematic search of MEDLINE, Cumulated Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature and Embase (inception to February 2022) was performed using exhaustive terms, in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guideline. The search was limited to English-language publications in peer-reviewed journals; grey literature was not included. Human, animal and experimental studies were included. Papers were reviewed by all authors to determine inclusion. Each study was assessed for level of evidence and bias.
Results 14 studies met the inclusion criteria: 7 controlled swine studies (total n=166), 5 healthy human volunteer cases series (total n=251), 1 human case report and 1 mannikin study. The AAJT-S was demonstrated to be effective at cessation of blood flow when tolerated in healthy human and animal studies. It was easy to apply by minimally trained individuals. Complications were observed in animal studies, most frequently ischaemia-reperfusion injury, which was dependent on application duration. There were no randomised controlled trials, and the overall evidence base supporting the AAJT-S was low.
Conclusions There are limited data of safety and effectiveness of the AAJT-S. However, there is a requirement for a far-forward solution to improve NCTH outcomes, the AAJT-S is an attractive option and high-quality evidence is unlikely to be reported in the near future. Therefore, if this is implemented into clinical practice without a solid evidence base it will need a robust governance and surveillance process, similar to resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta, with regular audit of use.
- accident & emergency medicine
- trauma management
Data availability statement
No data are available.
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Contributors SW conceived the idea. SW, JER and EBGB undertook the systematic review, reviewed papers to determine inclusion and wrote and revised the manuscript. EBGB is responsible for the overall content as the guarantor.
Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Competing interests None declared.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
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