TableĀ 2

Mechanisms underlying ventilator associated lung injury14

VolutraumaLarge tidal volumes can result in over-distension of alveoli, a direct physical insult to the cells occurs resulting in increased permeability and subsequent pulmonary oedema.
Cyclical airway closureThis is also referred to as atelectrauma and results from small airways repeatedly opening and closing with the respiratory cycle. This can result in surfactant being drawn out of alveoli and a subsequent need for higher pressures to recruit the lung units, which can then result in physical cell damage.
BarotraumaExcessive pressure causes direct damage to alveolar cells. This can result in air tracking throughout anatomical planes. This damage can occur following a single insult.