Table 1

Outbreaks of malaria in deployed military populations

Predisposing factors—adherence to:
Nationality of troopsYearEndemic countryNumbers affectedStrainAnti-malarial chemoprophylaxisInsect repellentInsecticide-treated clothingBed nets
Brazilian army71995Angola78/439PF/PV52% (n=66)VariableIrregular
UK army102000Sierra Leone93PF66%13.3%18.3%45%
US Rangers92002Afghanistan38/725*PV52% (41% terminal chemoprophylaxis)29%82%
US marines142003Liberia44/225 (5 complicated)PF55%45%12%0%
United Nations152005Democratic Republic Congo99 (9 complicated)98% PF
French162006Ivory coast39/575 (3 complicated)PF (83%)
PO2
PM2
PV1
 45%60%95%85%
French172008French Guyana265221 PV
44 PF
45%
  • *Diagnosis was a median of 233 days after return from the malaria-endemic region.

  • PF, Plasmodium falciparum; PM, Plasmodium malariae; PO, Plasmodium ovale; PV, Plasmodium vivax.