Table 2

Definitions of union or non-union, where stated amongst included papers

AuthorsDefinition (union/non-union)Definition
Bhatnagar et al 199247Non-unionA fracture that shows no evidence of progressive healing at 6 months after injury.
Nicholas and McCoy 199548UnionThe absence of pain and motion at the fracture site and good callus formation on X-rays.
Pukljak 199751UnionSuccessful weightbearing after removal of external fixation or plaster cast.
Kuklo et al 200819Non-unionFailure of bridging callus on anteroposterior and lateral radiographs at 12 months after injury.
Keeling et al 200818UnionOsseous consolidation evident on radiographs and minimal pain on palpation at fracture site.