Table 1

Correlates of positive screens for peripandemic psychiatric outcomes among US veterans with histories of COVID-19 infection

 VariablesBivariate analysesMultivariable analyses
Internalising psychiatric disordersExternalising psychiatric disordersSuicidal ideationInternalising psychiatric disordersExternalising
Psychiatric disorders
Suicidal ideation
rrrOR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)
Sociodemographics
Age−0.124−0.096−0.153*
 Male gender−0.0360.0370.022
 White race/ethnicity−0.0650.0210.016
 College graduate or higher education−0.035−0.164*−0.0670.52 (0.16 to 1.72)
 Married/partnered−0.028−0.0700.080
 Household income $60K or higher−0.059−0.061−0.142*0.15** (0.04 to 0.51)
 Combat veteran0.0100.012−0.059
Prepandemic risk factors
 Psychiatric symptom severity0.582***0.251***0.358***4.02** (1.47 to 10.95)0.76 (0.35 to 1.67)0.53 (0.26 to 1.09)
 Alcohol use problem severity0.342***0.556***0.281***1.05 (0.92 to 1.20)1.37*** (1.19 to 1.57)1.14*(1.02 to 1.26)
 Non-prescription drug use days past year0.248***0.559***0.1021.01*(1.00 to 1.01)1.01*** (1.01 to 1.02)
 Cumulative trauma burden−0.126*−0.048−0.0620.85** (0.77 to 0.95)
 Adverse childhood experiences0.321***0.0940.213**1.32*(1.01 to 1.71)1.18 (0.94 to 1.49)
Suicidal behaviours
 Lifetime suicide attempt0.222**0.0310.151*2.34 (0.19 to 29.74)
 Past-year suicidal ideation0.060−0.0080.479***37.60*** (8.44 to 167.1)
 Psychosocial difficulties0.484***0.264***0.418***1.03 (0.99 to 1.08)1.01 (0.97 to 1.06)1.04 (0.99 to 1.09)
 Loneliness0.330***0.149*0.344***0.99 (0.64 to 1.53)0.95 (0.62 to 1.45)1.46*(1.00 to 2.12)
 Impulsivity0.238***0.0840.263***0.84 (0.69 to 1.03)1.19*(1.01 to 1.40)
Physical health characteristics
 Number of medical conditions0.113−0.110−0.098
 Any disability0.267***0.0180.1031.01 (0.17 to 5.98)
Prepandemic protective factors
 Engagement in mental health treatment0.189**0.0010.225***0.62 (0.09 to 4.16)
 Perceived social support−0.263***−0.154*−0.182**1.18*(1.01 to 1.39)1.06 (0.93 to 1.22)1.35** (1.13 to 1.60)
 Protective psychosocial characteristics−0.351***−0.275***−0.307***0.49 (0.23 to 1.06)0.58 (0.29 to 1.16)0.44*(0.22 to 0.88)
COVID-related variables (peripandemic)
 Hours consuming COVID-media0.238***0.039−0.0201.01 (0.74 to 1.38)
 Pandemic-related stress symptoms0.516***0.148*0.218**1.67 (0.29 to 9.71)
 Household member infected with COVID-190.008−0.0450.0259.40*(1.45 to 60.93)
 Non-household member infected with COVID-190.0730.0200.072
 Know someone died of COVID-190.101−0.0180.037
 COVID-related worries0.263***0.0960.0812.53** (1.33 to 4.81)
 COVID-related social restriction stress0.379***0.256***0.0732.19** (1.27 to 3.76)1.26 (0.76 to 2.08)
 COVID-related financial stressors0.356***0.0180.254***2.08** (1.24 to 3.48)
  • *P<0.05, **P<0.01, ***P<0.001.

  • r, Pearson correlation coefficient.