Table 4

Associations predicting severity of PTSD PCL-5 subscale symptoms

PTSD PCL-5 subscales
β coefficient (95% CIs)†
IntrusionsAvoidanceArousalNegative mood
Not being in a relationship−0.24 (−2.37 to 1.89)−0.24 (−1.29 to 0.81)−1.17 (−3.19 to 0.84)−1.78 (−4.49 to 0.92)
Age (increase per year)0.05 (−0.01 to 0.10)0.01 (−0.02 to 0.04)−0.01 (−0.72 to 0.07)−0.01 (−0.09 to 0.07)
Living alone−0.09 (−2.35 to 2.18)0.22 (−0.93 to 1.38)1.35 (−0.92 to 3.62)2.98 (−0.12 to 6.07)
Living in rural area0.68 (−0.86 to 2.22)0.07 (−0.67 to 0.80)1.09 (−0.59 to 2.77)1.20 (−0.72 to 3.11)
Higher social support−0.21 (−0.32 to −0.11)*−0.06 (−0.11 to −0.01)*−0.25 (−0.37 to −0.13)*−0.30 (−0.43 to −0.15)*
More COVID-19 related stressors3.31 (1.79 to 4.83)*1.21 (0.44 to 1.98)*2.08 (0.37 to 3.80)*3.89 (1.78 to 6.01)*
Probable COVID-19 infection0.83 (−1.27 to 2.93)0.15 (−0.72 to 1.01)0.76 (−1.54 to 3.07)−0.34 (−3.01 to 2.33)
Bereavement related to COVID-190.19 (−1.87 to 1.50)−0.19 (−0.96 to 0.57)−0.76 (−2.84 to 1.32)−0.88 (−3.32 to 1.56)
  • *P<0.000.

  • †β coefficients adjusted for all variables in the table.

  • PCL-5, Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist; PTSD, post-traumatic stress disorder.