Table 5

Factors associated with improvements in BMI during military service according to general and military characteristics

Improvement group
OR*95% CI
Age (years)
 <201.200.50 to 2.87
 20–211.481.01 to 2.17
 ≥22Ref
Educational level
 High schoolRef
 College or above1.320.89 to 1.96
Smoking status
 Non-smokerRef
 Ex-smoker1.140.66 to 1.98
 Current smoker1.140.83 to 1.56
Subjective health status
 Good1.711.02 to 2.87
 Normal1.320.79 to 2.22
 PoorRef
Physical activity (MET-min/week)
 <600Ref
 600–30000.950.63 to 1.44
 >30000.960.64 to 1.44
Strength training
 None1.210.80 to 1.81
 1–2 times per weekRef
 ≥3 times per week1.481.03 to 2.12
Sleep duration (hours/day)
 <60.670.25 to 1.76
 6–7Ref
 ≥81.030.75 to 1.41
Sleep disturbance
 NoRef
 Yes0.860.55 to 1.36
Military
 ArmyRef
 Navy1.400.86 to 2.27
 Marine Corps2.151.07 to 4.32
 Air Force1.120.68 to 1.86
Branches
 CombatRef
 Technical1.060.70 to 1.61
 Administrative/special1.190.67 to 2.11
Service period (months)
 <6Ref
 6–110.890.57 to 1.40
 12–170.820.53 to 1.26
 ≥180.940.54 to 1.64
Type of workplace
 Large, middle and small citiesRef
 Country, town, township1.020.69 to 1.49
 Remote areas0.780.43 to 1.39
Working hours (hours/day)
 <401.140.76 to 1.72
 40–55Ref
 ≥561.240.88 to 1.75
  • *Regression analysis was performed using the deterioration group as the reference (ref) group. Stress and depression variables were excluded from the table because they did not show significant results during the analysis.

  • BMI, body mass index; MET, metabolic equivalent of task.