Table 4

Mean scores in each outcome measure and the comparison of soldiers reporting injury versus not reporting an injury

Outcome measureAll soldiersInjuredUninjuredP value
Global PSQI score7.4±3.99.0±4.16.4±3.4<0.001
 C1: sleep quality1.4±0.81.7±0.81.2±0.7<0.001
 C2: sleep latency1.3±1.01.7±1.11.1±1.0<0.001
 C3: sleep duration1.3±1.01.4±1.01.1±0.90.031
 C4: sleep efficiency0.7±1.00.9±1.10.6±0.90.023
 C5: sleep disturbance1.2±0.71.4±0.61.1±0.60.001
 C6: sleep medication use0.5±1.00.7±1.10.3±0.80.004
 C7: daytime dysfunction1.0±1.01.2±1.00.9±0.90.009
Sleep duration (hours)5.9±1.35.7±1.36.1±1.20.026
Epworth Sleepiness Scale8.2±5.18.7±5.57.8±4.80.147
Pain level (0–10)2.2±2.43.7±2.51.3±1.9<0.001
  • Mean±SD. Between-group differences after conducting an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), controlling for age and time in service.

  • C, component; PSQI, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index.